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Exhaust gas turbochargers for passenger cars use a single-inlet turbine casing, which means that only the pressure energy of the exhaust gas is used, and no other auxiliary energy is needed. Due to the large range of speeds of the car engine, the exhaust turbocharger must have an adjustment device to allow the engine to achieve a relatively constant boost pressure over a range of speeds. In addition, the gasoline engine is a ignited ignition, and its compression ratio has a certain range of limits. If it is too high, it will cause deflagration. Therefore, there is also a detonation detection and control mechanism to adjust the ignition advance angle at any time.
The exhaust turbocharger of the car is generally installed near the exhaust pipe, and the turbine and the impeller are respectively installed in the turbine chamber and the supercharger, and the two are coaxially rigidly coupled and synchronously rotated.
When no boost is required, such as idle or a precursor to deflagration, a portion of the exhaust will escape through the bypass valve without entering the turbocharger. When the engine speed reaches 2000 rpm, the solenoid valve closes the bypass valve to direct the exhaust flow to the turbine side, causing the turbine to rotate. There is also a design that adjusts the angle of the turbine blades and adjusts the speed of the turbine by changing the resistance to change the amount of boost.
Cooling the air allows the air to contract to increase density, to pack more air at the same volume, and to prevent knocking. Therefore, the car's turbocharger is equipped with an intercooler, which is typically air-cooled, mounted in front of, adjacent to, or in a separate position on the engine radiator, using the car's oncoming airflow or its own fan cooling.
The key component of a turbocharger is the bearing. This type of bearing, named after the lubrication form, is called a “full floating bearing” and has a very high operating speed and a harsh working environment. Therefore, ensuring lubrication is very important. If the oil supply is slow due to low oil pressure, the bearing will be damaged and the turbocharger will be ineffective. This type of failure does not occur during normal engine start-up, but if the engine is first started after changing the oil and oil filter, there will be a slow supply of oil, which will make the bearing lack oil lubrication. In this case, it is necessary to idle for about 3 minutes after starting, and it is not possible to directly increase the speed to the turbocharger starting speed. Similarly, do not stop the engine immediately after high speed and uphill, and keep the engine running at idle for about 1 minute, so that the turbocharger bearings that continue to idle will not be short of oil. Therefore, the driver of the turbocharger car must follow the instructions of the manufacturer, and pay great attention to the quality of the oil. It is not appropriate to operate the turbocharger car as a normal car.
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